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Ahmad Ibn-e Mousa (PBUH)’s Biography

In the name of Allah

Sayyed Amir Ahamd, also known as Shahecheragh, was the noble son of Imam Musa Kazim (a.s) and older brother of Imam Reza (a.s).

According to the popular belief, Imam Musa (a.s), the 7th Imam, has had 19 sons. Sayyed Amir Ahmad and Sayyed Amir Mohammad were born form the same mother who was called Omm Ahmad, Mother of Ahmad.

Virtues of Shahecheragh’s mother

In explaining the 15th hadith in the book of The Mirror of Intellects, Allamah Majlesi says:

Omm Ahmad was mother to some of Imam Musa’s children and she was the wisest, most dear and virtuous of his wives. She was the most trusting person for Imam and he came to her with his secrets and trusts.

In the book of al-Kafi under the section of “when does Imam know that he is Imam” is explained that: Imam Musa (a.s) left a sealed envelope with her and said any one of my children who comes asking for this envelope after I am assassinated is the next Imam and nobody knows of this but Allah, oath your allegiance to my son. After Imam Musa was killed, Imam Reza (a.s) came to Omm Ahmad and asked for his father’s will. Omm Ahmad cried, as she knew herwas dead. Afterwards, according to Imam Musa’s will she turned the trust to Imam Reza (a.s) and announced her loyalty and devotion to him as the eighth Imam.


Shahecheragh and residents of Madina’s oath of allegiance with Imam Reza (a.s)

As the news of Imam Musa’s death travelled around the city of Madina, people gathered around Omm Ahmad’s house. Because of the personality and characteristics of Shahecheragh, they thought he is the next Imam, so they accompanied him to the city mosque and took an oath of allegiance to support and obey him in any situation. Shahecheragh accepted their oath of allegiance and turned the in to Imam Reza (a.s). Then he climbed the Minbar and gave a fluent and strenuous speech: (Oh people, as all of you swore oath of Allegiance to follow and obey me, be aware that I, myself, swear oath of allegiance to my brother, Ali Ibn Musa.  He is the Imam and Khalifa after my father. You and I are obliged to obey him by Allah and his prophet Mohammad.”

Then, Shahecheragh talks about the qualities of his brother, Imam Reza. They all accepted his points about Imam Reza and as they exited the mosque, followed him to Imam Reza’s house and they all swore oath of allegiance to Imam Reza (a.s). Imam Reza prayed for his brother, Shahecheragh, and said: may Allah never let you get lost, as you did not hide the truth about our situation.


Departure from Madina to Tus

During the administration of Ma’mun Abbasi, the true Islamic maxims were being practiced and distributed around the Islamic region under the guidance of Imam Reza. By this time, Ma’mun who was scared of pervasiveness of Islamic thoughts and its stand in opposing injustice appointed Imam Reza (a.s) as his crown prince and despite Imam Reza’s discontent, Mamun’s soldiers moved Imam from Madina to tus.

The blessed presence of Imam Reza in Khorasan was the reason for shiaat and friends of Ahl al-Bayt (family of holy Prophet Mohammad) to come enthusiastically from all over the world to Iran in order to visit the Imam.

At that years (198-203),Ahmad Ibn-Mousa, two of his brothers named Mohammad and Hossein and a large group of his nephews, relatives and Shias, who were over two or three thousand, departed to Khorasan through Basreh . As they passed each city, the number of their companions grew so much that some of historians have mentioned that the number of Ahmad Ibn-Mousa’s companions were about fifteen thousand people.

Meanwhile, in spite of Mamun’s deceits and tricks as to tarnish the image of Imam Reza’s academic popularity and Walaya (guardianship) position, Imam’s superiority and success increased Mamun’s hatred and finally, he poisoned the immaculate Imam to death in 202 lunar calendar. Then he hypocritically mourned the death of Imam and buried Imam next to the Harun al-Rashid’s tomb, the murderer of Imam Musa al-Kazim.

Damned Mamun who had inherited secret malice and enmity of the family of Abi-Talib from his ancestors was very terrified of his crime. after knowing that Hazrat Ahmad Ibn-Musa (Shahecheragh) and his companions were going to Khorasan , ordered all his governors to kill each and every one of Bani-Fatemeh and descendants of Prophet Mohammad (PBVH) and frighten Bani-Hashem’s followers with inconvenience and torture and subdue them to accept Mamun.

The news of Ahmad Ibn-Musa’s departure reached Mamun through government employees. Mamun knew Shahecheragh’s entrance to the governmental capital was a threat to his sensitive stand and was scared of their support for Imam, ordered his governors to prevent all Bani-Hashem caravans’ progress and refer or kill them.

Whenever that order delivered to cities, the Caravan had already passed through, except for Shiraz, where the order was delivered to the governor before Shahechergh’s caravan arrived. Fars governor (Ghotlogh Khan) was a cruel and bloodthirsty man. He went out of the city with a big army and camped in front of Ahmad ibn-Musa’s Caravan.

Ahmad ibn-Musa confronted Ghotlogh Khan12 miles out of Shiraz, where the martyrdom news of his brother, Ali ibn-Musa al-Reza, reached him.

When Ahmad ibn- Musa realized the situation, knew that first, his brother was mursered in Tus. Second, returning to Medina or anywhere else is impossible. Third, those people gathered in front of him with intention of a battle to kill him. Therefore, he informed all of his companions and announced, “Those people intended to kill descendants of Ali ibn-Abi Taleb, if you want to return or know any way of escape, you can save yourself. However, I have no choice but to Jihad (fight) with these wicked people. All the Ahmad ibn-Musa’s brothers and companions said that they tend to fight at his service. The honorable Shahecheragh blessed them and told them to be prepared for combat.

Battle and dispute

Ghotlogh Khan’s army lined in front of Ahmad ibn-Musa and his companions. An unequal  battle started. Because of Ahmad ibn- Musa’s companions’ bravery and devotion, the enemy was defeated and withdrew. That battle continued in three times and for a couple of days. In the third battle, Ghotlogh Khan’s army was defeated. They withdrew from Kushan village, the battle site, to near the Shiraz tower and walls (12 miles), hid inside the city, and closed the city gates. Ahmad ibn-Musa returned to his camp in Kushan village. In that battle, some of Imamzahehs and companions were wounded and about three hundred of them were killed.

Enemy’s conspiracy

The next day, Ahmad ibn-Musa set his companions behind the Shiraz gates and camped there. Ghotlogh Khan knew that he would not be able to fight Ahmad ibn-Musa and despite all the love and devotion in Ahmad inb-Musa’s army, he couldn’t have a clean fight with them.  He played a trick with his commanders’ help.  According to the plan, he sentpart of his troops to confront Ahmad ibn-Musa’s army with quarrel and escape method and to withdraw at first strike and return to the city gate. That trick made Ahmad ibn-Musa’s brothers and companions to enter the city,and that’s when the deceitful enemy closed the gates. Ghotlogh Khan’s ambush armyhidden in the gateways of the city attacked and killed Ahmad ibn-Musa’s friends with different methods and in various places.

Ahmad ibn-Musa’s martyrdom

Because of enemy’s conspiracy, most of Ahmad ibn-Musa’s friends and relatives were killed and some of them, who it to escaped from the enemy, scattered around. Historians agree that most of Imamzadehs in Fars and other cities in Iran are of remaining of that attack.  

The enemy also followed Hazrat Shahecheragh and Ghotlogh Khan attacked him with a number of his troops. Ahmad ibn-Musa resisted bravely and defended himself. Some sources write: Ahmad ibn-Musa fought numerous soldiers by himself. When enemy realized that they could not beat him, they made a hole in the wall behind him his and struck him with a sword from behind, then ruined the house on his body. It has been hidden under the mass of dust where his shrine is now.

Emersion of Ahmad ibn-Musa’s tomb at Atabakan era

Most reliable sources of the past and present on Ahmad ibn-Musa’s biography state that Ahmad ibn-Musa’s tomb was revealed at Amir Mugharab Ol’Din Masood ibn-Badr era (623-658 lunar calendar). Zarkub Shirazi’s book (Shiraz nameh) compiled in 764 is one of the eldest sources that has recorded that Ahmad ibn-Musa’s tomb was revealed at Amir Mugharab OlDin era, He wrote:

The grave of immaculate Imamzadeh, Amir Ahmad ibn-Musa, is in the center of city next to Nu Mosque. Amir Mogharrab OlDin Masoud Ibn-Badr had a building in which they found a revealed grave. The body was still intact, his ring engraved with the blessed name of Ahmad ibn-Musa. The shcolars, scientists and religious authorities gathered and presented the results to Atabak. Atabak Abubakri built a shrine upon it that gradually became famous after uncountable cases of miracles.

Iesa ibn-Joneid, translated a book by his father, Moein olDin Aboulqasem Joneid Shirazi, into Farsi and they validated the dates and information in the Zarkoob Shirazi.

According to joneid Shirazi, no one knew of Shahecheragh’s location of martyrdom until the time of Masoud ibn-Badr who built a shrine upon it. but he gives no information as of how it was discovered.