Hazrat Shahecheragh’s Biography
Hazrat Sayyed Amir Ahmad "Shahecheragh" "Sayyed al- sadat- al a’aazam" is Imam Musa Ibn-e Jafar's son and Imam Reza's brother.
The 7th Imam had 19 sons. Hazrat Ahmad Ibn-e Musa and Muhammad Ibn-e Musa were born from the same mother, named "Omm-e Ahmad".
Hazrat Ahmad Ibn-e Musa's Character
He was superior to other Imam Musa al-Kazem's children because of his generosity and braveness.
He stayed up late to pray; also he emancipated one thousand slaves in his life.
In "Ershad", Sheikh Mofid's book, it's said that: "Hazrat Ahmad Ibn-e Musa was honourable, generous and virtuous and Hazrat Musa Ibn-e Jafar loved him very much and gave priority to him; also he declared his farm that's known as Basireh to Ahmad Ibn-e Musa who bought and released one thousand slaves for God’s sake.
Hassan Ibn-e Muhammad Ibn-e Yahya said about his ancestor that who stated: "My father and his children exited Medina toward his farms and gardens and there were 20 men of my father's waiters with Ahmad Ibn-e Musa and they respected him so that even if he sat down, they also sat or whether he stood up, they did too.
My father loved Ahmad from bottom of the heart and was kind to him very much so that when Ahmad didn’t notice to my father, he looked at him kindly for a while and never we left our group, unless Ahmad went out.
Shahecheragh's Mother Superiorities
In the explanation at the 15th statement, Allame Majlesi in his book, "Meraat al- Oghool" states that "Omm-e Ahmad was some of his (Musa Ibn-e Jafar) son's morher. She was the wisest, chastest and dearests of his wives who held his mysteries and deposits."
According to the topic "when dose a person (Imam) recognize that he's Imam?" in [Osoole Kafi], it's written that: Hazrat Imam Musa asked Omm-e Ahmad to hold a secret deposit and told her: "After my death, if each sons of mine comes and wants to gain this deposit, he will be the next Imam and can replace my position. Also, he noticed her that no one knows about it. After Imam Musa's martyrdom, Hazrat Reza went to Omm-e Ahmad and requested for his father's deposit. Omm-e Ahmad started to cry and knew that Imam Musa was martyrized. Then that holy lady according to Imam Musa's wishes, dedicated the deposit to Imam Reza, and swore allegiance with him as the 8th Imam.
Swearing Allegiance of Medina People with Hazrat Ahmad Ibn-e Musa
According to his greatness and character, it is said that: People came to him as they knew about his honor, worship and greatness and also Imam Musa’s consideration to him, and wanted to swear allegiance with Shahecheragh as the 8th Imam. Then he had a fluent lecture and stated: After my father, my brother, Raza is Shiites’ Imam and God's agent. It is necessary to obey."
After that, Imam Reza prayed for his brother as he revealed the truth of the succession of Imam Musa al-Kazem. [Considering Imam Musa’s Martyrdom in Rajab month (183 A.H.), the allegiance ceremony might happen on the same year].
Moving from Medina to Tous
In the period of Ma’mun Abbasi's reign, the uprising and movement of Alavi and Hashemi (Sadat) reached to its peak, and by the guidance and leadership of Imam Reza, the real Islam was promoted and the real face of the usurping government of the Abbasid caliphs was revealed. In order to suppress the Shiites’ revolt and to strengthen the unstable government of Abbasids, Ma’mun imposed on Imam Reza to accept being the crown prince.
Despite Imam Reza's desire, Ma’mun transferred him from Medina to Tous.
Imam Reza’s being in Khorasan caused Shiites to travel to Iran from different places to visit him.
In the same years (198-203), Hazrat Ahmad Ibn-e Musa with some of his friends and Shiites (whose number is recorded between 700-6000 people) moved from Medina to Tous through Shiraz.
Although Ma’mun Abbasi had a lot of tricks and deceits to distort the scientific position of Imam Reza, the superiority and victories of that holy man aroused Ma’mun al-Rashid Abbasi’s Jealousy. Finally in year 202 he poisoned this innocent Imam and martyrized him. Then Ma’mun made a mourning ceremony hypocritically and buried him respectably next to "Harun al-Rashid", who was Imam Musa's murderer.
When Ma’mun heard about Ahmad Ibn-e Musa and his friends’ traveling to Khorasan, ordered all his agents to kill any of prophet's family members anywhere.
The Entry of Hazrat Ahmad Ibn-e Musa to Fars and His martyrdom
As the caravan of Imam's family and other Shiites, leading by Hazrat Ahmad Ibn-e Musa, arrived the land of Fars, the officials announced the Fars governor, "Ghotlogh" who was a puppet of the Abbasid government. So he rushed toward Hazrat Shahecheragh with his large army in an area called "Khan zenyan" located about 50 km far from Shiraz.
When Hazrat Sayyed Amir Ahmad saw the group of enemies against Imam's family, he said to his partners: "killing Imam Ali's children and descendants is their purpose. If any of you wants to return to Medina or know the way of escape, he is allowed to go".
Brothers, nephews and friends that accompanied Hazrat Ahmad Ibn-e Musa found that he was so determined to fight. So they stated their faithfulness to him. As that holy man and his friends were very brave, the enemies were defeated several times but some of Imam's sons and Shiites were suffered martyrdom or injured.
"Ghotlogh" Army members who were unable to resist, played a trick and gossiped about the death of Ali Ibn-e Musa al-Reza among his companions. Then they sent a few soldiers to war and prepared a lot of fighters and hid them in the city for war. His companions who were suffered about that news, rushed to "Ghotlogh" army and killed many of them. They thought that they succeeded, so they entered the city. The enemies, who were ready and prepared, attacked on them and martyrized them. Though hazrat Ahmad Ibn-e Musa who was injured badly on his head and his body, fought hard and killed many of the enemies till he arrived the place in which he was martyred and buried.
Finding Hazrat Ahmad Ibn-e Musa’s Tomb/Grave
To save the holy body of Hazrat Ahmad Ibn-e Musa after his Martyrdom, it was disappeared from the sight of unbelievers and no one knew the place of his tomb until the time of Azad al-dole Deilami. The real Muslims saw brightness in a ruin and informed Azad al-dole that something is shining brightly until morning over that place. Then Azad al-dole, in consultation with the scholars and elders, ordered to dig that place. They found a stone epigraph with these words on it: "Al- Sayyed Amir Ahmad Ibn-e Musa al-Kazem"
When they picked up the stone, a large cellar appeared. It's Said that "Sheik Abu- Abdellah Muhammad Ibn-e Khafif' who is called "Sheik Kabir", a real virtuous person, went to the cellar and found the body of that holy man there, without any change. It's perfect and safe with a light Shinning and a ring in his right hand that this statement written on its signet
"Al-ezzato le Allah; Ahmad Ibn-e Musa"
[Dignity is for God; Ahmad, Musa's son]
Then Azad al-dole ordered to establish a building on his grave (year 371-338)
In 745 A.H, Lady Tashi Khatun dedicated the city "Meimand" to this holy shrine and also 30 parts of Koran written in golden thuluth script. This precious Koran is written by "Yahya al-Jamali", a penman in 764; the name of penman and dedicator are at the beginning and end of each part. It's one of the most valuable Korans in the world and now it is kept in Pars museum.
Why do we call Hazrat Ahmad Ibn-e Musa as "Shahecheragh"?
Shah means great, in a highest level and the meaning of Cheragh is light. So, shah Cheragh means: the brightest light. This is Sayyed Amir Ahmad 's nickname. This name is more famous than Ahmad Ibn-e Musa for Shiites, specially Iranians.